Making It Happen: “When Change Has Legs”

madshoes

The problem with new initiatives is that nobody wants another thing to do.  Everyone is full-up, drowning in a plate that is over-full.  Still, continuous improvement seems necessary.  Change , naturally, falls out of the need to get better at what we do.  Better means smarter; more focused and full of intent.  Embedding new frameworks and specific practices into our schools can be tricky.  Failure rates can be high and sustaining efforts over time requires keen leadership.

In a previous entry, I stated

For lasting change, we must build upon the good things that are already happening within the school ecology.

In an article written for Educational Leadership (“SPECIAL TOPIC: When Change Has Legs”), David Perkins and Jim Reese elaborate on four key factors that  help determine whether change efforts will be sustained over time.

“we might think of change as traveling on four legs: frameworks, leaders, community, and institutionalization.”

 

Framework

  • teachers are more likely to warm to frameworks they can adapt to their personal styles and circumstances
  • teachers can often work effectively with two or three frameworks simultaneously, as long as the frameworks are not contradictory

Roadblocks that thwart change

  • stiff, rigid frameworks with little room for individualization
  • juggling more than a few frameworks that don’t “fit” together well

What seems to work

  • allowing for individual implementation of the framework with frequent feedback from colleagues
  • choosing just a few roomy frameworks that fit well together.

 

Leaders

  • Initiatives need a political visionary (often the principal) who advocates for the initiative relentlessly,   making it a priority, defending it against critics, explaining it to parents, appearing for key events, and allocating resources
  • They also need a practical visionary (often teachers) who is given the time and resources to manages the program on the ground, organizing faculty groups and events and conducting some training and coaching.

Roadblocks that thwart change

  • simply being “friendly” toward an initiative is not leading the initiative
  • administrators cannot easily play the dual role of political and practical visionary

What seems to work

  • Leadership with a slow but constant presence
  • The initiative is not a bulky mandate, but instead becomes more about “who we are”

 

Community

  • widespread change efforts include a complex set of interactions
  • varying degrees of acceptance are to be expected and planned for by all
  • a collegial culture is crucial; transparency essential

Roadblocks that thwart change

  • a strong in-group and out-group can form if leaders are not careful about initial work
  • the polarization can grow, making success increasingly unlikely

What seems to work

  •  make information widely available to staff, community and other school leaders
  • recruit teachers with experience in new initiative to share stories; remain inclusive

 

Institutionalization

  • sustaining over time is difficult as the context changes
  • initiatives need to be written into the school’s “dna”

Roadblocks that thwart change

  • practical and/or political visionaries leave
  • change was not planned for; momentum subsides

What seems to work

  • plan for teaching new staff
  • create a framework for sharing practices; place events on calendar

It is not enough to simply adopt a new initiative with integrity.  Instead, we must be intentional about HOW we put legs on the framework.  Our choices will determine the degree to which new practices emerge; change in practice becomes systemic.

Perkins and Reese add:

” The main point is that teachers like talking about teaching. So with a shared language and a shared approach there is loads of room for talking. It brings teachers out of their classrooms, their grades and their departments, and creates a more collaborative school environment.”

Perkins, David N. and Reese, James D.   “Special Topic:  When Change Has Legs“. Educational Leadership.  71 ( 8),     2014.  42-47. Print. Electronic.

Advertisements

Power With, Not Power Over: Building Community

co7083

Reading the section on Community Building in High Impact Instruction by Jim Knight.  Chapter 11 is entitled “Power With, Not Power Over”.

Power With involves authentic power we develop with students.  To do so, we must practice empathizing with, connecting with, and respecting students.  

Empathizing is an active engagement that  is a “willingness to become part of another’s experience, to share the feeling of the experience”.

“Empathy is the very means by which we create social life and advance civilization.”  Jeremy Rifkin

“Power with” our student begins with the simple desire to empathize with them, to deeply understand how they are experiencing our class and school, and how they think and feel about what is important in their lives.  ”  This is about being intentional about understanding.

Teachers can use empathy as a strategy for everything they do in class.  Some specific examples given by Knight include:

  1. see the class through individual students’ eyes as much as possible
  2. put photographs of all students on the wall where lesson design occurs to remind that the focus is on these children
  3. do a mental roll-call of all student’s faces before planning a lesson to consider the needs of each student
  4. consider how high, average, low and other learning students are doing in your class
  5. prompt students to do Martin Seligman’s Three Good Things Exercise
  6. use more formal methods:  interest surveys, strength surveys, writing prompts, anonymous feedback
  7. have a peer of yours interview students
  8. take a challenging class that will help you understand the experiences of students who are struggling (I recommend trying to knit socks!  )

Building effective relationships with students is a pivotal piece of their learning process.

Thinking Through the Roadblocks: PBIS

Positive Behavior Interventions and Support (PBIS) is a school-wide  framework that offers buildings the opportunity for culture change.  Implemented well, within a response to intervention (RTI) system that offers a wide array of creative, comprehensive options for academic and behavioral challenges, research on PBIS is promising.  It reduces the need for special education referrals.  It reduces the number of suspensions.

Most common misperceptions?  

  •  PBIS is all about extrinsic rewards.
  • All kids don’t “need” it, so why should we do it?

Don’t throw the baby out with the bath water!

PBIS is a comprehensive framework that is most effective when embedded in the school’s improvement plan/goals AND in collaboration with an RTI model around academics.  The beauty of PBIS, really?

  • develops predictable routines in common areas
  • creates common language for staff and students
  • focuses on teaching routines/expectations instead of punishing
  • helps staff think through expectations for activities and procedures
  • helps administrators think through expectations of staff and students
  • keeps staff and administration communicating about their school culture
  • helps school teams develop alternatives to suspension

Reward systems are part of PBIS and research across many buildings indicate it works.  However, reward systems are only a small part of the bigger picture.  During our professional learning and implementation support, we encourage buildings to determine if this part is necessary for them.  If they are not comfortable with it, we help them implement without.  After all, if the data indicates the climate is fine, why tamper with what works for them?

PBIS is not needed for you?  This may be true for teachers who  are incredibly effective at building relationships.  Maybe you are consistent, positive and  able to manage all difficulties within your classroom.  But look around.  Is this true for every classroom in your building?  District?   Is it possible that your building or district needs it, despite your success?   The consistency, predictability  and routines that PBIS supports offer are vital for children who come from chaotic, unpredictable communities/homes.  Your demographics may not include these students.  They may, but you might be effective regardless.   Still, the benefits of PBIS done well are clear.  They work for everyone, everywhere.  This is about the building, not the individual teacher alone.

So, what does it take to become a high implementor of PBIS?

(1) Teacher commitment to the initiative needs to be developed and reinforced. Communication of guidelines and the rationale for practices could facilitate teacher buy-in. Systematic use of data to demonstrate the effectiveness of PBS practices was also linked to teacher buy-in.
(2) Clear implementation guidelines should be provided to all school staff through a structured system of professional development and information dissemination. The guidelines need to help teachers respond positively to an often diverse population of students. They also need to encourage consistent and appropriate implementation of the rewards system based on a shared understanding of PBS in the school.
(3) Systematic data collection and use allows teachers and administrators to monitor the nature, location, and frequency of smaller disciplinary infractions before they become larger issues.
(4) Including student input in data-based decision-making can be useful in addressing barriers associated with the rewards system, including selecting appropriate rewards and monitoring the consistency with which rewards are offered.
(5) PBS orientation/training for new and substitute teachers could increase the consistency of application within the school. Similarly, refresher training may be needed for more experienced teachers. However, given the limited resources for professional development and the experience of some teachers with PBS, creativity in how to provide the training – to whom, when, and in what format – will be needed.

Resources

Positive Behavior Support in Delaware Schools

Identifying Implementation Barriers and Facilitators in PBIS

OSEP:  PBIS